Islam muncul di Semenanjung Arab pada kurun ke-7 masihi apabila Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. mendapat wahyu daripada Allah s.w.t. Selepas wafatnya Rasullullah s.a.w. kerajaan Islam berkembang sejauh Lautan Atlantik di Barat dan Asia Tengah di Timur. Lama-kelamaan umat Islam berpecah dan terdapat banyak kerajaan-kerajaan Islam lain yang muncul.
Walau bagaimanapun, kemunculan kerajaan-kerajaan Islam seperti kerajaan Umaiyyah, kerajaan Abbasiyyah, kerajaan Seljuk Turki Seljuk, kerajaan Uthmaniyyah Turki Uthmaniyyah, Empayar Moghul India, dan Kesultanan Melaka telah menjadi antara empayar yang terkuat dan terbesar di dunia. Tempat pembelajaran ilmu yang hebat telah mewujudkan satu Tamadun Islam yang agung. Banyak ahli-ahli sains, ahli-ahli falsafah dan sebagainya muncul dari negeri-negeri Islam terutamanya pada Zaman Keemasan Islam.
Pada kurun ke-18 dan ke-19 masihi, banyak kawasan-kawasan Islam jatuh ke tangan penjajah Eropah. Selepas Perang Dunia I, Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah iaitu empayar Islam terakhir tumbang menyembah bumi.
Nabi Muhammad s.a.w.
Semenanjung Arab sebelum kedatangan Islam merupakan sebuah kawasan yang tidak maju. Kebanyakkan orang Arab merupakan penyembah berhala dan ada sesetengahnya merupakan pengikut agama Kristian dan Yahudi. Mekah ialah tempat suci bagi bangsa Arab ketika itu kerana di situ terdapatnya berhala-berhala agama mereka dan juga terdapat Telaga Zamzam dan yang paling penting sekali Kaabah.
Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. dilahirkan di Mekah dalam Tahun Gajah (570 atau 571 masihi). Baginda merupakan seorang anak yatim lagi selepas ayahnya Abdullah dan emaknya Aminah meninggal dunia. Baginda dibesarkan oleh pakciknya iaitu Abu Talib. Baginda kemudiannya berkahwin dengan Siti Khadijah dan menjalani kehidupan yang selesa dan aman.
Namun demikian, ketika Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berusia lebih kurang 40 tahun, baginda didatangi oleh Malaikat Jibril a.s. Selepas beberapa ketika baginda mengajar ajaran Islam secara tertutup kepada rakan-rakan terdekatnya dan seterusnya secara terbuka kepada seluruh penduduk Mekah.
Mekah dan Madinah kemudiannya berperang. Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. memenangi banyak pertempuran walaupun ada di antaranya tentera Islam tewas. Lama kelamaan orang-orang Islam menjadi kuat dan berjaya membuka Kota Mekah. Selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w., seluruh Semenanjung Arab di bawah penguasaan orang Islam.
Secara umumnya Sejarah Islam selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. telah berkembang secara serius diseluruh dunia. Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah, Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah, dan Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah boleh dikatakan penyambung kekuatan Islam selepas pemerintahan Khulafa al-Rasyidin.
Untuk rencana utama: sila lihat Khulafa al-Rasyidin
- 632M- Kewafatan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Saidina Abu Bakar dilantik menjadi khalifah. Usamah ibn Zaid mengetuai ekspedisi ke Syria. Kempen menentang kumpulan Murtad iaitu Bani Tamim dan Musailamah al-Kazzab.
- 633M- Pengumpulan Al Quran bermula.
- 634M- Kewafatan Saidina Abu Bakar. Saidina Umar Al-Khatab dilantik menjadi khalifah. Penaklukan Damsyik dan seterusnya kempen meluaskan jajahan Islam di Tanah Parsi
- 635M- Penawanan Madain, ibukota Empayar Parsi Sassanid.
- 636M- Penaklukan Syria, Mesopotamia, dan Palestin.
- 637M- Mesir ditawan.
- 638M- Penawanan Baitulmuqaddis oleh tentera Islam.
- 640M- Kerajaan Islam Madinah mula membuat duit syiling Islam.
- 644M- Saidina Umar mati syahid akibat dibunuh. Saidina Uthman Affan menjadi khalifah.
- 645M- Kempen di Afrika Utara. Cyprus ditakluk.
- 646M- Kempen menentang Byzantine.
- 647M- Angkatan Tentera Laut Islam ditubuhkan & diketuai oleh Muawiyah Abu Sufyan. Perang di laut menentang angkatan laut Byzantine. Empayar Parsi Sassanid ditumpaskan.
- 648M- Pemberontakan menentang pemerintahan Saidina Uthman.
- 656M- Saidina Uthman wafat akibat dibunuh. Saidina Ali Abi Talib dilantik menjadi khalifah. Terjadinya Perang Jamal.
- 657M- Saidina Ali memindahkan pusat pemerintahan daripada Madinah ke Kufah. Perang Siffin meletus.
- 659M- Saidina Ali menawan kembali Hijaz dan Yaman daripada Muawiyah. Muawiyah mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai khalifah Damsyik.
- 661M- Saidina Ali wafat dibunuh. Tamatnya pemerintahan Khulafa al-Rasyidin. Muawiyah mengasaskan Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah.
Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah
Untuk rencana utama: sila lihat Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah
- 661M- Muawiyah menjadi khalifah dan mengasaskan Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah.
- 670M- Mara ke Afrika Utara. Penaklukan Kabul.
- 677M- Penawanan Samarkand dan Tirmiz. Serangan ke atas Constantinople.
- 680M- Kematian Muawiyah. Yazid I menaiki takhta. Peristiwa pembunuhan Saidina Hussein.
- 685M- Khalifah Abdul Malik menjadikan Bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa rasmi kerajaan.
- 700M- Kempen menentang kaum Barbar di Afrika Utara.
- 711M- Penaklukan Sepanyol, Sind, dan Transoxiana.
- 712M- Tentera Ummaiyyah mara ke Sepanyol, Sind, dan Transoxiana.
- 713M- Penaklukan Multan.
- 716M- Serangan ke atas Constantinople.
- 717M- Umar bin Abdul Aziz menjadi khalifah. Pembaharuan yang hebat dijalankan.
- 725M- Tentera Islam menawan Nimes di Perancis.
- 749M- Kekalahan tentera Ummaiyyah di Kufah, Iraq ditangan tentera Abbasiyyah.
- 750M- Damsyik ditawan oleh tentera Abbasiyyah. Kejatuhan Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah.
Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah
Untuk rencana utama: sila lihat Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah
- 752M- Bermulanya Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah.
- 755M- Pemberontakan Abdullah bin Ali. Pembunuhan Abu Muslim.
- 756M- Abd ar-Rahman I mengasaskan Kerajaan Bani [[Ummaiyyah Sepanyol.
- 763M- Penubuhan kota Baghdad. Kekalahan tentera Abbasiyyah di Sepanyol.
- 786M- Harun al-Rashid menjadi Khalifah.
- 792M- Serangan ke atas selatan Perancis.
- 800M- Kaedah sainstifik dicipta. Algebra dicipta oleh Al-Khawarizmi.
- 805M- Kempen menentang Byzantine. Penawanan Pulau Rhodes dan Cyprus.
- 809M- Kewafatan Harun al-Rashid. Al-Amin dilantik menjadi khalifah.
- 814M- Perang saudara di antara Al-Amin dan Al-Ma'mun. Al-Amin terbunuh dan Al-Ma'mun menjadi khalifah.
- 1000M- Masjid Besar Cordoba siap dibina.
- 1005M- Multan dan Ghur ditawan.
- 1055M- Baghdad ditawan oleh tentera Turki Seljuk. Pemerintahan Abbasiyyah-Seljuk bermula, yang kekal sehingga tahun 1258 apabila tentera Mongol memusnahkan Baghdad.
- 1085M- Tentera Kristian tawan Toledo (di Sepanyol).
- 1091M- Bangsa Norman tawan Sicily, pemerintahan Muslim di sana tamat.
- 1095M- Perang Salib pertama berlaku.
- 1099M- Tentera Salib tawan Baitulmuqaddis. Mereka membunuh semua penduduknya.
- 1144M- Nuruddin Zengi tawan Edessa daripada tentera Kristian. Perang Salib kedua berlaku.
- 1187M- Salahuddin Al-Ayubbi tawan Baitulmuqaddis daripada tentera Salib. Perang Salib ketiga berlaku.
- 1194M- Tentera Muslim menawan Delhi, India.
- 1236M- Tentera Kristian tawan Cordoba (di Sepanyol).
- 1258M- Tentera Mongol menyerang dan memusnahkan Baghdad. Ribuan penduduk terbunuh.Kejatuhan Baghdad. Tamatnya pemerintahan Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah-Seljuk.
- 1260M- Kebangkitan Islam. Kerajaan Bani Mamluk di Mesir (merupakan pertahanan Islam yang ketiga terakhir selepas Makkah & Madinah) pimpinan Sultan Saifuddin Muzaffar Al-Qutuz menewaskan tentera Mongol di dalam pertempuran di Ain Jalut.
Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah
Untuk rencana utama: sila lihat Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah
- 1243M- Bangsa Turki yang hidup secara nomad menetap secara tetap di Asia Kecil.
- 1299M- Sebuah wilayah pemerintahan kecil Turki di bawah Turki Seljuk ditubuhkan di barat Anatolia.
- 1301M- Osman I mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai sultan. Tertubuhnya Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah.
- 1345M- Turki Seljuk menyeberangi Selat Bosporus.
- 1389M- Tentera Uthmaniyyah menewaskan tentera Serb di Kosovo.
- 1402M- Timurlane, Raja Tartar (Mongol) menumpaskan tentera Uthmaniyyah di Ankara.
- 1451M- Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih menjadi pemerintah.
- 1453M- Constantinople ditawan oleh tentera Islam pimpinan Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih. Berakhirnya Empayar Byzantine.
- 1520M- Sultan Sulaiman al-Qanuni dilantik menjadi sultan.
- 1526M- Perang Mohacs
- 1529M- Serangan dan kepungan ke atas Vienna.
- 1571M- Perang Lepanto berlaku.
- 1641M- Pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad IV
- 1683M- Serangan dan kepungan ke atas Vienna buat kali kedua.
- 1687M- Sultan Muhammad IV meninggal dunia.
- 1703M- Pembaharuan kebudayaan di bawah Sultan Ahmed III.
- 1774M- Perjanjian Kucuk Kaynarca.
- 1792M- Perjanjian Jassy.
- 1793M- Sultan Selim III mengumumkan "Pentadbiran Baru".
- 1798M- Napoleon cuba untuk menawan Mesir.
- 1804M- Pemberontakan dan kebangkitan bangsa Serbia pertama.
- 1815M- Pemberontakan dan kebangkitan bangsa Serbia kedua.
- 1822M- Bermulanya perang kemerdekaan Greece.
- 1826M- Pembunuhan beramai-ramai tentera elit Janissari. Kekalahan tentera laut Uthmaniyyah di Navarino.
- 1829M- Perjanjian Adrianople.
- 1830M- Berakhirnya perang kemerdekaan Greece.
- 1841M- Konvensyen Selat.
- 1853M- Bermulanya Perang Crimea.
- 1856M- Berakhirnya Perang Crimea.
- 1876M- Perlembagaan Uthmaniyyah diluluskan.
- 1878M- Kongres Berlin. Serbia dan Montenegro diberi kemerdekaan. Bulgaria diberi kuasa autonomi.
- 1908M- Jawatankuasa Perpaduan dan Kemajuan atau lebih dikenali sebagai Turki Muda ditubuhkan. Perlembagaan Uthmaniyyah dikembalikan. Austria menyerang Bosnia dan Herzegovina.
- 1912M- Perang Balkan pertama.
- 1913M- Perang Balkan kedua.
- 1914M- Empayar Uthmaniyyah memasuki Perang Dunia I sebagai sekutu kuasa tengah.
- 1919M- Mustafa Kemal Atatürk mendarat di Samsun.
- 1923M- Sistem kesultanan dihapuskan. Turki diisytiharkan sebagai sebuah Republik.
- 1924M- Pejabat khalifah dihapuskan. Tamatnya pemerintahan Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah.
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- Bahasa Indonesia
Sejarah Merupakan Hal Yang Akan Membangkitkan Idiology
ACHEH’S JIHADAcheh’s Jihad
Acheh’s strategic location at the northern tip of Sumatra and at the head of the Melaka Straits has for centuries brought the Achinese into contact with the world. Marco Polo visited Acheh in 1232, while awaiting passage back to Europe, reported an independent Sultanate, wealthy from the vast stands of pepper in the hinterlands and tolls on trading ships entering the Melaka Straits.
However, the fall of Melaka in 1511 heralded a meteoric rise in the power of Acheh. The Portuguese capture of Melaka and their persecution of Muslims forced wealthy Arab and Gujerati merchants to move from Melaka to Acheh. This new wealth enabled Acheh to embark upon wars of aggression and conquest to obtain control of the pepper districts of Sumatra. Militarily and economically stronger than any of her neighbours in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, she quickly took over the mantle of the vanquished Melaka Sultanate as the leading kingdom in the Straits. She overran the pepper ports of Pasai and Pedir and secured control of the part of Minangkabau which was rich in gold. The two export commodities of pepper and gold became important in the development of Acheh as a commercial centre. Acheh fought the Portuguese for naval and commercial control of the Straits and fought against Johor for political leadership of the dependent states on both sides of the Straits.
Acheh was initially a vassal state of Sultan Marif Shah of Pedir but Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah defied his overlord. Aided by arms and ships he captured attacking Portuguese vessels, Ali Mughayat Shah attacked Pedir and forced the ruler to flee to Pasai. The Portuguese gave their support to the fugitive ruler of Pedir when he arrived at Pasai and established a fort there. Nevertheless, Pasai fell to the Achinese in 1524. Gradually, Acheh pushed her boundary southwards along the east coast until she reached the boundary of Johor’s vassal-states. She then turned her attention to the west coast and the whole of north Sumatra.
Muslim traders from the ports of Asia continued to avoid Portuguese Melaka and called at Acheh instead. The growth of Acheh as an international port opened up a new sailing route to merchant ships coming from the west. Instead of using the northern entrance of the Straits after crossing the Indian Ocean, trading vessels now came via the Maldives to the west coast of Sumatra and along its southwards to the Sunda Straits between Sumatra and Java. This enabled ships to by-pass Melaka and thus caused a shift of importance in the trading emporia of South-East Asia.
In 1528, Ali Mughayat Shah attacked the fleet of Simao de Souza Galvao sheltering from a storm off Acheh. In that year Ali Mughayat died and was succeeded by Salauddin ibni Ali. Made bold by the small addition of Galvao’s fleet to their military strength, the Achinese attacked Melaka in 1529, but were unsuccessful. In 1537, Salauddin was poisoned by his wife, and Alauddin Riayat Shah al-Quahhar (1537-71) succeeded to the throne.
The Portuguese attempted to capture the pepper centres of Pasai and Pedir but were soundly defeated by the Achinese. Acheh established direct links with the Turkish Empire and encouraged Turkey to join in a ‘jihad’ against ‘infidel’ Melaka. In exchange for pepper, Turkey regularly supplied arms, ammunition and men to Acheh for use against the Portuguese. As a result, Acheh launched no less than fourteen attacks on Portuguese Melaka between 1537 and 1574.
Sultan Alauddin’s his first attack on Melaka in 1537 was repulsd but this show of imperialism across the Straits worried the Sultanates of Johor, Pahang, Perak and Demak, who now saw in Acheh a threat as dangerous as the Portuguese. These fears were soon realized when Acheh conquered Johor’s vassal-state of Aru (Deli) in 1539. Johor formed an alliance with Perak and Siak and dealt a crushing blow on Acheh’s navy at the battle of Sungai Paneh.
Temporarily paralyzed by that body blow from the Johor Malays, Acheh regained enough of her strength in 1547 to launch another attack against Melaka. The Achinese navy blockaded Melaka and, later sailing north, captured Perlis. With the help of two ships from Patani, a Portuguese fleet went after the Achinese and drove them away from their position on the Perlis river. Following that reversal, Acheh decided it best to subdue Johor first, before attempting any assault on Melaka. In 1564 she once again attacked Aru and recaptured it from Johor. Crossing the Straits, the Achinese razed the fort at Johor Lama to the ground and captured Sultan Alauddin, imprisoning him in Acheh, where he died.
The Achinese then formed a Muslim League of nations, which Turkey joined, for offensives against the Portuguese. The big attack came in 1567 when a huge Achinese fleet of 300 war-boats with some 20,000 men, (including 400 were Turkish troops) laid siege on Melaka. But they failed to capture the impregnable fortress and withdrew, leaving 3,000 dead. The 1570s saw several further attacks on Melaka. The third and most dangerous one was launched in 1574 and carried on into 1575. Again the impregnability of ‘A Famosa’ saved the Portuguese and compelled the retreat of the Achinese. The Achinese then sailed north to Perak and captured it.. Now they also had control of the tin trade of Perak, making their power greater than ever before. Acheh launched another expedition against Johor in 1582 but, this time, were defeated by the forces of Johor who, ironically, were aided by the Portuguese.
In May 1585 Acheh’s Sultan Mansur Shah prepared yet another big fleet of about 300 war-boats against Melaka. Before he attacked Melaka, however, he was killed by one of his generals. The general assumed the post of Regent over the boy-king, Sultan Buyong. In 1588, the boy-king was removed and the Regent usurped the throne, calling himself Alauddin Riayat Shah.
Portuguese accounts describe the reign of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (1588-1604) as cruel and destructive. On his accession to the throne he had all the orang kayas or nobility who opposed him murdered and made his supporters orang kayas. Those who spoke against his actions were killed and it was said about 20,000 people were killed during the first year of his reign. However, the Tarich Atjeh dan Nusantara, a work based on Indonesian and Dutch sources, gives a very different picture of this ruler. Alauddin is described as a wise ruler interested in the prosperity of the country. He successfully curbed the disorders prevailing at that time. He encouraged trade by inviting foreign merchants to come and trade in Acheh. Alauddin even made peace with the Portuguese. Indeed, he had a Portuguese advsior, Afonso Vicente, to act as his interpreter and commercial adviser in his dealings with the Europeans. However, the old hatreds between the Achinese and the Portuguese soon re-kindled when the Portuguese assisted Johor against Acheh during its attempt to recapture Aru from Johor.
At the ripe age of 95, Alauddin allowed his son, Sultan Muda, to rule jointly with him. In 1604, however, Sultan Muda imprisoned his father and became the sole ruler. But Sultan Muda was a weak leader and Acheh was not to be a dynamic and aggressive power again until the rule of Sultan Iskandar Muda, also known as Mahkota Alam (’Crown of all He Surveys’) in 1607.
He quickly moved to eliminate all competitors to regional supremacy and finally captured Aru in 1612. Just the next year, he sacked Johor’s capital of Batu Sawar and captured all of the Johor royal family, bringing them to Acheh. He later restored Raja Abdullah, the crown prince of the Johor throne but, in 1637 captured and killed him when the new Sultan attempted to seek alliances with Acheh’s Dutch enemies. In the meantime, Pahang, Kedah, and Perak had quickly fallen to the Achinese, who now also controlled most of the northern, western and eastern coasts of Sumatra, including the former Johor possessions of Aru, Rokan, Siak, Kampar and Indragiri.
With the Johor Empire subdued, Mahkota Alam felt strong enough to go for the jewel in the crown – Melaka. In 1615, an Achinese fleet of three hundred junks, galleys and frigates, carrying nearly a hundred thousand men, fought the Portuguese off Muar. Passing vessels at the time recorded ‘great fires’ on the shores for three days and three nights as the battle raged inconclusively. The next year, a combined Achinese and Johor fleet besieged Melaka. Four Portuguese galleons were dispatched from Goa to the region but the Achinese sank one, while the remainder were torched by Dutch ships aiding the besiegers. But the siege ultimately failed.
In 1627, Mahkota Alam again laid siege on Melaka, with 20,000 men. The siege lasted two years, and the city was under constant attack by both by land and by sea. A fleet of 80 galleys and frigates were dispatched from Goa to Melaka’s aid and the armada destroyed the besieging forces. Acheh was never to recover from that crushing defeat.
Mahkota Alam died in 1636 – probably much to the great relief of the Portuguese and the Johor Sultans. Because he did not have a son , Mahkota Alam had adopted the son of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang as his regent. The Prince, Iskandar Thani, assumed the throne and continued Acheh’s war on Melaka, attacking the fortress in 1639 but again failing to breach its ramparts. Iskandar Thani died in 1641 and Acheh was subsequently ruled by a succession of Queens. Under them, Acheh gradually lost all her foreign conquests and never regained her former greatness.
Nevertheless, throughout the remainder of its history, Acheh was to remain fiercely independent and deeply Islamic. During the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch in following centuries, Acheh resisted fiercely, its struggles based first on self-defence and, ultimately, on an aroused spirit of Islamic martyrdom. The longest ever war in the history of Dutch colonialism was required to incorporate the proud Sultanate of Acheh into Netherlands India. This was the Perang Sabil, from 1873 until 1903, when its leaders finally surrendered. Ulamas or clerics continued encouraging armed resistance, leading to a further ten years of bitter fighting. Even in defeat, Acheh remained the only major kingdom in the Indonesian archipelago to have never signed a treaty accepting Dutch sovereignty.
Organized states sprang up during the weakened Han empire by the end of the second century CE in the northern Malay peninsula. In the 15th century Melaka (Malacca) grew from a fishing village to become the greatest emporium in southeast Asia. In 1401 the Malay peninsula including Tumasik (old Singapore) had been compelled to recognize the sovereignty of Siam.
The refugee Paramesvara from the civil war in Java, who had married a Majapahit princess, murdered his host in Tumasik but was driven out by the Siamese overlords. Paramesvara went to Melaka and paid tribute to Siam. The large Chinese fleets led by the Muslim Zhenghe (Cheng Ho) stimulated trading in the region.
Paramesvara sent envoys to the Ming court as early as 1405. The Melaka that Zhenghe visited again in 1409 was no longer dependent on Siam as Paramesvara and his family had been to see Ming emperor Yongle.
Melaka got rice from Pedir and Pasai on nearby Sumatra. In 1414 Paramesvara converted to Islam, and Melaka became a growing port for Muslim merchants. Another visit by Paramesvara to China in 1419 confirmed this alliance of protection against Siam. When Paramesvara died, he was succeeded by his son Sri Maharaja (r. 1424-44), who soon went to China with tribute.
When Sri Maharaja died, there was a struggle for power between his brother-in-law Tun Ali, leader of the Tamil Muslims, and the old Bendahara (prime minister and chief judge) Seri Amar Diraya, who refused to accept Sri Maharaja’s son Raja Kasim because his mother was a commoner. The infant and his uncle, whom the Bendahara put on the throne, were murdered by Tun Ali; the old Bendahara died, and his son took poison, allowing Tun Ali to become bendahara and crown Raja Kasim as Muzaffar Shah (r. 1445-59), who was recognized as sultan by the Chinese. Siam invaded by land in 1445; but Tun Perak led the defense against this attack and a naval one in 1456.
Muzaffar Shah was succeeded by his son Mansur Shah (r. 1459-77), and during the next forty years the powerful Tun Perak extended Melaka’s territory by force of arms with help from Muslim trading of spices, gold, tin, silk, damask, and exotic birds. Most of Melaka’s industries were for warfare-building small but fast ships and forging arms; but they also did woodwork and dried fish. Its commercial ships were built in Pegu and Java. A Muslim sultan was installed at Malaya’s main granary at Kedah in 1474. Melaka became a center for the spread of Islamic culture that was well received when tolerantly spread by the mystical Sufis. Prosperity also increased under Ala’uddin Riayat Shah (r. 1477-88) and young Mahmud (r. 1488-1511), who were both also related to Tun Perak. After his death in 1498, his elderly brother became bendahara but died two years later. In 1500 Tun Mutahir, the son of Tun Ali and Tun Perak’s sister, was made bendahara and governed until he was killed in 1510 trying to seize the throne.
The maritime laws of Melaka were promulgated by Mahmud sometime before 1510. Sea-captains wanted a code and were declared like kings on their ships; but the laws were not written down until after Mahmud was no longer powerful. Adultery on a ship was a capital offense.
Melaka was conquered by the Portuguese Albuquerque in 1511, and he sent ambassadors to Siam and Burma. The Portuguese tried to monopolize the spice trade in order to keep the European price high so that they could pay for their military and colonial expenses. Mahmud escaped in 1511 and from the island of Bintang in the Straits of Singapore used his fleet to disrupt trade to Melaka. An attack on Melaka by Java’s Pangeran Sabrang Lor failed in 1512.
The Portuguese established factories for cloves in Ternate and Tidore of the Maluku islands in 1513. Acheh on the northern tip of Sumatra soon developed into a major Muslim port under Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah (r. 1515-30). By 1519 Acheh had taken over the pepper ports of Pasai and Pedir. Between 1515 and 1524 Mahmud besieged Melaka five times. In 1524 the second Portuguese viceroy, da Gama (son of the navigator), decreed the death penalty and loss of property for owners refusing to get a pass from the Portuguese at Melaka. In 1526 the Portuguese successfully attacked Bintang. One Spanish ship made it to Tidore and sided with them against the Portuguese; but in the treaty of 1529 Spain agreed to confine itself to islands 17 degrees east of the Moluccas (Maluku). Mahmud’s son continued to harass the Portuguese, and Muslims made Brunei in northern Borneo an Islamic center.
The Portuguese at Melaka had been charging a tariff of only six percent on trade; but after 1544 the governors charged port duties and forced merchants to sell them commodities at discount prices. When Acheh took over Johor’s vassal Aru in 1539, Johor defeated Acheh in a naval battle. Acheh attacked Melaka in 1537, 1539, and 1547. In 1558 a Turkish armada of 300 warships with 15,000 Turkish troops and artillery besieged Melaka for a month. Acheh got revenge on Johor by sacking it in 1565.
Portuguese trade at Melaka prospered despite more attacks by Acheh in 1568, 1570, and 1573, plus one from Javanese Japara the next year. In 1582 the Portuguese helped defend Johor and defeated Acheh. Ungrateful Johor besieged Melaka in 1587; but the Malays lost 2,000 ships while the Portuguese had only eighty men dead. So that year Acheh made a treaty with the Portuguese. Sultan al-Mukammil (r. 1589-1604) deposed the previous Acheh sultan, and according to John Davis, he had thousands of nobles killed to make new lords and laws. Acheh sultan Iskandar Muda (r. 1607-36) gave the Dutch and English monopoly arrangements that harmed local traders, and he banned Gujarati pepper buyers. The Acheh kingdom was militarized and sacked Johor in 1613 and 1615. The Johor sultan joined Iskander in an attack on Melaka in 1616, but it failed.
Iskander extended his control from Sumatra to the mainland states of Pahang in 1618, Kedah in 1619, and Perak in 1620. A reported 22,000 captives were taken to be made slaves in Acheh, but only about 1500 survived. Sikander’s attempt to take Portuguese Melaka in 1626 failed. The deportations caused resentment, and in 1629 Melaka, Johor, and Patani combined forces to defeat the Achinese navy near Melaka.
Ayudhya extended its control down the Malay peninsula and occasionally collected tribute in the form of small trees made of gold and silver. A Patani princess married a Pahang ruler, and Patani’s Queen Raja Ungu (r. 1623-35) irritated Ayudhya by marrying her daughter Raja Kuning to a brother of the Johor ruler. Patani defied Ayudhya’s usurping king Prasat Thong by attacking Ligor and Phattalung, and in 1634 Prasat sent 30,000 troops aided by Kedah. Johor and Pahang helped Patani with 5,000 men and fifty ships that repelled the invasion. After Raja Ungu died, the Kedah ruler mediated a peace treaty between Patani and Ayudhya.
The arrogance of the Johor prince, who was married to Raja Kuning, provoked the nobles in the Patani court to massacre many Johor people, including the prince’s mother in 1645. Ayudhya’s Narai (r. 1657-88) was powerful enough to collect tribute from the northern Malay kingdoms.
In 1637 Johor’s Sultan Abdul Jalil made a treaty with the Dutch and contributed forty ships to support their siege of Melaka in 1640. When Johor attacked Pahang in 1638, Ahmad of Acheh ended his treaty with the Dutch and refused to participate in the attack on Portuguese Melaka. The Dutch did get permission from Acheh in 1639 to purchase tin from Perak, which objected to this monopoly. In 1641 the Dutch conquered and destroyed Melaka as a commercial port and built up its fortifications to transform it into a military bastion to protect Dutch trade in the region. They mediated a peace treaty between Johor and Acheh. Then Johor pushed Acheh out of Pahang and gained the commerce that Melaka had lost.
The Menangkabau of Rembau fought against Melaka’s new occupation by the Dutch; but after Dutch soldiers burned Melekek and Naning, they made peace. The Catholic church in Melaka was rebuilt as a Dutch Reformed Church, and in 1645 the Portuguese were not allowed to practice their religion openly with stiff penalties for infractions. The Dutch made treaties to purchase tin from Perak and Kedah. In 1647 the Dutch warned Indian ships not to use Malay ports, and this enabled them to make a treaty with Perak, open their factory, and divert 770,000 tons of tin to Melaka; but in 1651 the Malays massacred those in the factory and continued to sell their tin to Acheh and other merchants. In 1656 the Dutch imposed a blockade for three years, and the Achinese had to buy their cloth from Melaka. When Balthasar Bort became governor of Melaka in 1666, he would not allow Catholic priests to perform any religious ritual or collect alms. Threats of invasion by Ayudhya’s Narai in the 1670s persuaded Perak to allow a Dutch post on Pangkor Island, but they had to abandon it in 1690.
In 1662 the Dutch gained a monopoly on the trade with the lucrative port of Indragiri, but Johor took it away from them in 1669. A proposed marriage between a Johor prince and a Jambi princess was thwarted when the Johor laksamana (naval commander) arranged for his own daughter to marry the prince. This provoked a war, and in 1670 Jambi enslaved 917 people as they attacked Indragiri and Tungkal. The next year the Johor navy with help from Indragiri troops defeated the Jambi fleet. In 1673 a Jambi expedition destroyed the Johor capital at Batu Sawar; the Dutch remained neutral. While Sultan Abdul Jalil (r. 1623-77) took refuge in Pahang, Johor’s Laksamana with help from the Orang Laut in Riau won an acclaimed victory over Jambi in 1679 and forced them to pay reparations. Ibrahim Syah had become king of Johor in 1677, and the following year resistance by Minangkabau immigrants led by Raja Ibrahim’s call for a Muslim holy war ended when he was murdered. After their war ended in 1681, Johor and Jambi combined to attack Jambi’s enemy, Palembang; the Laksamana took half the spoils. When Ibrahim Syah died in 1685, the Laksamana became regent for his ten-year-old son Sultan Mahmud; but the Bendahara, Tun Habib Abdul Majid, led a revolt, and the Laksamana fled to Trengganu. In 1688 Riau fortifications were demolished, and the people were deported from the island to the Johor River settlement. Sultan Mahmud began ruling in 1695. The aged Bendahara died two years later, and his son, Tun Abdul Jalil, could not control the ignorant and cruel Sultan Mahmud. When the Sultan ordered the wife of a noble to be killed for tasting fruit in the palace, officials had him assassinated in 1699.
The regicide of Sultan Mahmud ended the royal line in Johor because he had no children. The Bendahar became Sultan Tun Abdul Jalil Syah, but questions about his legitimacy hurt Johor’s commerce. In 1702 Bugis began settling in Johor. Ayudhya’s army advanced southward and attacked Johor’s Terengganu in 1710 but then withdrew because of Vietnamese incursions into Cambodia. The Sultan’s brother was raja muda, and he used Bugis warriors to quell a rebellion in Batu Bahara. He also ratified a treaty with the Dutch in 1713.
Johor’s capital was moved to the island of Riau. During a Kedah succession dispute in 1715, the ruler’s younger brother promised the Selangor Bugis tin for their help, and Johor lost control over their territory. Temenggong Tun Abdul Jamal led the naval campaign against the Bugis in Linggi. The Johor-Bugis war lasted until August 1717, when Johor abandoned Selangor and the expensive campaign.
In 1717 Raja Kecil in Siak claimed to be the posthumous son of Sultan Mahmud, and the next year he attacked the Johor fleet with Minangkabau warriors; but Raja Kecil lost support by killing some of the Minangkabau’s Orang Laut leaders, and he also had Sultan Tun Abdul Jalil assassinated. In 1721 the Bugis installed the Sultan’s son, 20-year-old Sulaiman, but because of his father’s guilt he still had little influence in Johor. Kedah was devastated as the Bugis won a war against Raja Kecil between 1724 and 1726. The Bugis prince Daeng Marewa held the power in Johor, and he was succeeded by his brother, Daeng Cellak (1728-45). After a long mental illness, Raja Kecil died in 1746 and was succeeded by Raja Muhammad, who got help from Daeng Kemboja in defeating a challenge by his half-brother Raja Alam. Also in 1746 Perak gave the Dutch a monopoly on their tin that lasted nearly half a century. In 1754 the Bugis community left Riau desolate and moved to Linggi. The Bugis attacked Melaka in 1756, and the next year the Dutch with Terengganu help retaliated against Linggi. In 1758 the Bugis leaders of Linggi, Kelang, and Rembau agreed to a treaty confirming the Dutch tin monopoly. Two years after Raja Muhammad massacred the Dutch post on Pulau Gontong in 1759, the Dutch replaced him with his brother Alam. Sultan Mansur (r. 1741-93) ruled Terengganu, and he in alliance with Siak attacked divided Kelantan in 1764.
The Bugis led by Daeng Kemboja returned to Riau in 1760 and fought off an attack by Raja Ismail of Siak in 1767. The Bugis damaged but could not capture Kedah in 1771 because it was briefly allied with the British.
Muhammad Jiwa ruled Kedah until he died in 1779, and his son, Sultan Abdullah (r. 1779-1802), joined with Sultan Mahmud of Terengganu to drive the Bugis out of Malaya. After Daeng Kemboja died in 1777, his nephew Raja Haji took power from Kemboja’s son at Riau. He sided with the Dutch but felt betrayed when they did not share the confiscated opium cargo from a British ship in 1782. Two years later Raji Haji led an attack on Melaka, but a Dutch squadron led by van Braam arrived, defeating and killing Raji Haji. The Dutch captured Riau and expelled the Bugis forever; Sultan Mahmud made a treaty giving the Dutch Company control over all trade. Selangor’s Sultan Ibrahim (r. 1782-1826) fled to Pahang; but he came back with forces strong enough to make the Dutch agree to a treaty in 1786. Sultan Mahmud recruited Ilanum forces from Sulu and defeated the Dutch garrison at Riau in 1787; but the Sulu took their booty and left. Sultan Mahmud took refuge on Lingga, as the Dutch recaptured Riau.
In the second half of the 18th century, the British gradually gained most of the commerce in the Malayan region because their Company controlled the trade in cloth and opium from India and improved their ships and navigation; also, unlike the Dutch Company, they were allowed to sell armaments. Siam’s Rama I (r. 1782-1809) began demanding obeisance from the Malayan rulers of Kedah, Patani, Kelantan, and Terengganu, and this provoked rebellions by Patani in 1789, 1791, and 1808. In the 1790s Sulu pirates engaged in slave raiding. Threatened Sultan Abdullah of Kedah ceded the island of Penang to Francis Light of the English East India Company in 1786 for a pension of 6,000 Spanish dollars per year. In 1795 the British took over Melaka from the Dutch, who let them have it according to William V’s Kew Letters because they opposed France, which had invaded the Netherlands. Needing food-producing land, in 1800 Penang’s Lt.
Governor George Leith gained more Kedah territory and renamed it Province Wellesley.
Immigrants came to Penang, and free trade was allowed until 1802. Penang became the fourth British presidency after Bengal, Bombay, and Madras in 1805. Yet justice was handled informally by local leaders until a British court was established in 1807. Kedah’s Sultan Ahmad (r. 1803-21) was installed by Siam, and in 1816 Bangkok ordered him to help them punish Perak for refusing to send tribute. In 1821 the Siamese army invaded Kedah and drove Sultan Ahmad to take refuge at Penang with the British, whom he criticized for not defending his state. The British demolished the Melaka fort in 1809 but did not restore the port to the Dutch until 1818.
Stamford Raffles was a secretary at Penang and studied the Malayan culture. After serving at Melaka and at Bengkulu on Java, Raffles persuaded Lord Hastings that the British needed a port east of the Melaka Straits, and in 1819 he established Singapore on the island off the tip of the Malayan peninsula. Singapore was making a profit by 1820 and grew quickly. Raffles returned for a visit, and in 1823 he proclaimed Singapore a free port open to all trade. He also organized a land registry, port management, a police force, a school for Asian languages, and prohibition of the slave trade, gambling, and cock fighting. During a dispute between two brothers, Raffles recognized Sultan Hussein as the sultan of Johor and arranged for his annual pension of $5,000. In 1824 the Dutch and the British agreed on a treaty that divided their regions of influence. The Netherlands gave up Melaka and all factories in India, promising not to interfere on the Malay peninsula. The British ceded Bengkulu and let the Dutch control Sumatra, Java, and the southern islands. Commercially they agreed to treat each other as most favored nations in India, Ceylon, and the Archipelago.
Sultan Ibrahim of Selangor helped Perak become independent in 1822, and in 1825 British Captain Henry Burney made a treaty with Ligor so that they would not attack Perak or Selangor. Penang governor Fullerton deterred the Raja of Ligor from invading Perak by sending gun-boats to the Trang River estuary. The next year Burney negotiated at Bangkok, but the resulting treaty with Siam was vague and was not kept. Fullerton sent Captain James Low, and in 1826 he signed a treaty with the sultan of Perak that persuaded the Siamese to withdraw their troops from there. Low also destroyed a nest of pirates on the Kurau River that had been raiding Penang. The Raja of Ligor complained that the captured pirate Udin was a Siamese official and that Kurau was in Kedah, causing Burney to be reprimanded by the Governor-General. In 1826 Singapore, Melaka, Penang, and Province Wellesley were combined into what became the Straits Settlements with Robert Fullerton as governor. In 1831 Abdul Said led the resistance to his imposing taxes on Naning as part of Melaka; the war lasted a year until ambitious chiefs came over to the British for support in their succession struggles. This foolish war cost the British 100,000 pounds. Although he had sponsored pirates, the British recognized Temenggung Ibrahim (r. 1841-61) as the ruler of Johor, perhaps because his father had helped them acquire Singapore. Between 1825 and 1850 the British offered cash rewards for the capture of pirates, but anti-piracy patrols were not effectively organized until 1835. During the 1840s the British navy and Company ships made more than 42,000 pounds for acting against pirates.
In 1839 James Brooke encountered a rebellion against the Sarawak governor Makuta. The Brunei sultan sold James Brooke a fief in 1841, and he became the “white raja” of Sarawak. The pirates and slaving Sea-Dayaks attacked Brooke in 1843, and they were supported by Makuta. Brooke gained some Iban allies to attack others, and in one battle he was assisted by four British ships and 2500 Ibans. In an 1846 treaty Brunei sultan Umar ceded Sarawak to the British and the island of Labuan to use as a coaling station for British steamers for $1500 annual payment.
In 1849 Brooke and his Malays attacked the Sea-Dayaks and wiped out 800 of the 4,000 pirates. Brooke was castigated in the press, but in 1853 he won a fraud suit against the Eastern Archipelago Company. In 1855 Brooke formed a Supreme Council of Malay chiefs to advise him.
The next year the Borneo Company began mining antimony and other minerals. In 1857 Chinese miners battled each other in Bau until Brooke brought in Kuching Chinese, Malays, and Ibans to quell the disturbance. Sarawak gained a Third Division of territory in 1860 for $4500 a year. Brooke retired to England in 1863. The gutta percha resin could be taken from trees without killing them, but the practice was to cut down the trees. After Johor had been depleted by rising exports, three million trees were harvested in Sarawak between 1854 and 1875.
Many Malays were Muslims and were influenced by the writings of Patani scholar Shaykh Dawud (d. 1847), who lived in Mecca. In 1831 Sultan Ahmad’s half-Arab nephew, Tunku Kudin, took over Kedah and held it for six months until the Siamese regained control. Siam assured its vassals they would protect them from rival claimants, and Kelantan’s Sultan Muhammad I agreed to pay an indemnity. Upon his death in 1837 a civil war broke out; Siam backed Sultan Muhammad II (r. 1838-86). In 1838 a Kedah prince led Malay forces that expelled the Siamese from Kedah again. They advanced to Patani and Singora but were also defeated after a few months. The Terengganu ruler, who had supported Patani, was overthrown when Baginda Umar (r. 1839-76) came from the island of Lingga to take power and become a vassal of Siam. The next year Siam divided Kedah into four parts, each under a Malay chief and a Siamese official. In 1842 the British managed to get Sultan Ahmad restored to the throne after a gap of twenty years, but he died three years later. Penang intervened to settle a border dispute between Kedah and Perak in 1843. During the reign of Siam’s Rama IV (r. 1851-68) and his son Chulalongkorn, the Malayan states paid their tribute and were usually not disturbed. Siam and the British both kept the peace on the peninsula. In 1867 when some Singapore merchants complained that Kelantan was restricting trade, the Siamese made sure they complied.
In 1857 the Singapore governor sent troops to stop the taking of tolls in the Linggi River, but this had only temporary effect. In 1858 two brothers began quarreling over the throne of Pahang, and the younger Wan Ahmad fled to Bangkok, where the Sultan of Lingga had been banished by the Dutch. In 1862 a Siamese warship accompanied the Sultan and Wan Ahmad to Trengganu. The Singapore Chamber of Commerce persuaded Straits governor Cavanagh to bombard the Sultan’s fort because he would not hand over Wan Ahmad. The Siamese complained of this violation but removed the ex-sultan the next year. Cavanagh intervened in 1862 to protect Chinese miners fleeing from Larut, and the House of Commons warned him not to interfere anymore. In 1867 the Straits Settlements were transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office.
Many Chinese immigrated into Malaya. Under the credit ticket system the new worker in the mines received no wages but maintenance until the debt was paid. This kind of slavery of bondservants was common in Malaya. Miners banded together in a brotherhood (hui) that functioned as a union. A Chinese capitalist could form a kongsi of workers, usually of the same ethnic background, as a cooperative venture. Malays preferred farming and usually co-existed with Chinese miners. Long Ja’far began governing Larut in 1850 and invited thousands of Chinese to come and work in the tin mines. Malays also cooperated with the Chinese such as on the gambier and pepper plantations in Johor, where a hundred thousand Chinese lived by the 1870s. Many Chinese joined secret societies. Hard times in Singapore and Penang erupted into riots in 1846, 1851, 1854, and 1861. The Chinese had enmity between the secret societies of the Hai San and Ghee Hin after fighting broke out in 1862.
Abu Bakar of Johor was educated by Christian missionaries. In 1863 he revised the Islamic law according to European ideas, and two years later he started a school with a western curriculum.
In 1866 Raja Abdullah of Kelang hired the Read-Tan syndicate to collect taxes for twenty percent of the profits; but the next year Raja Mahdi led the resistance that took over Kelang when Abdullah died. Selangor sultan Abdul Samad and his son-in-law Tengku Kudin allied with Abdullah’s son Ismail. In 1868 Yap Ah Loy became the Chinese leader of the tin-mining town of Kuala Lumpur. By 1870 the Fei Chew led by Yap Ah Loy in the Hai San society supported Tengku Kudin, while the Kah Yeng Chew of the Ghee Hin society backed Raja Mahdi. In 1871 Raja Mahdi gained Abu Bakar of Johor as an ally, and Tengku Kudin had Kedah relations in Rembau; both sides also had financial backers. Tengku Kudin’s side drove Raja Mahdi out of Kelang to the Selangor River. When Raja Mahdi captured a Chinese merchant’s ship from Penang, the British accused him of piracy and drove him away. Singapore secretary J. W. W. Birch promised to support Kudin and recognized Sultan Abdul Samad in Selangor, lending him a warship. However, Kudin was disliked by the Selangor chiefs, and by 1872 Mahdi’s side had gained the upper hand in the war. The Chinese factions were at war in Larut. Governor Harry Ord (1867-73) tipped the balance back by getting Pahang to help Kudin. Malays resented the interference, which was against the British policy. Conflict also arose in Perak after Sultan Ali (r. 1865-71) died. In August 1873 Penang’s Lt. Governor Anson called a meeting, and the Chinese leaders agreed to an armistice; but the proclamation by Perak’s Abdullah was ignored by Chinese headmen in Larut.
When Andrew Clarke became governor of the Straits, he organized a diplomatic conference that produced the Pangkor Treaty in January 1874. The leaders of the Ghee Hin and Hai San agreed to keep the peace or pay a fine of $50,000, and a disarmament commission supervised the surrender of weapons, destruction of stockades, and the release of prisoners. The Menteri Ngah Ibrahim was confirmed as ruler of Larut, and his chief of police, Captain Speedy, was to be assistant resident in Perak, where Abdullah was recognized as sultan. Ismail did not attend and was given a pension. The British resident was to give advice on the collection of revenues but not on Malay religion or customs. The Malay treaty also included discussion, as they preferred group decision-making.
- A month later Selangor issues were negotiated at Larut. Some pirates were put on trial for killing eight British subjects, and they were convicted and executed under Sultan Abdul Samad and Viceroy Kudin. Clarke appointed Kudin’s financial partner J. G. Davidson as resident in Selangor. British officials were established in Larut, Lower Perak, Kelang, Langat, and Sungai Ujung by the end of 1874. Abdullah farmed out tax collection to Cheng Tee for $26,000 and received half in advance. British officers acted as judges and appointed magistrates. Resident Birch tried to collect taxes for the state that previously had been collected by the chiefs, and he gave asylum to escaping bondservants. His proclamations were torn down, and in November 1875 he was killed by a spear while in a bath-house. Raja Mahdi was arrested for allegedly planning an attack, and skirmishes broke out in Sungai Ujung. The next year Maharaja Lela and two others were convicted and hanged for the murder of Birch. Sultan Abdullah was banished.